In this era of technology and its use for many purposes in an organization, one cannot ignore the importance and usefulness of this great invention. Information Technology has made life easy for humans and one should use this opportunity to make the best use of it.
In this article, I will like to brief us on some terms pertaining to information technology (IT) and Some of them are:
• Jobs and career in IT
• IT issues and challenges
• The relationship between IT and computer networking
• Hardware and software of IT
• Education and job functions
• IT courses
• Importance of IT and
• Free online IT Certification
Information technology (IT) which evolved out of information and communication technology (ICT) can be said to be the architectures, methodologies, regulations and the use of computers in storing, transmitting, retrieving and manipulation of data or information programmed for various tasks.
Jobs and careers:
Job posting sites commonly use IT as a category in their databases. The category includes a wide range of jobs across architecture, engineering and administration functions. People with jobs in these areas typically have school degrees in computer science and/or information systems. They may also possess related industry certifications. Short courses in IT basics can also be found online and are especially useful for those who want to get some exposure to the field before committing to it as a career.
The following are the visible jobs in Information Technology:
1. Technical Support:
Tech support is generally what most non-IT folks think of when they imagine an information technology department. These types of IT experts can be known by a variety of titles—“help desk technicians,” “operations analysts,” or “problem managers”—but at the end of the day, their main job is to provide expert troubleshooting advice to clients. Technical support typically handles both hardware and software issues at the user level, helping out the less tech-savvy with their computer problems—making communication skills, problem-solving, and well-rounded tech knowledge an asset.
Computer programmers are the brains behind software functions—they write and test the code that makes up software programs. This might range from simple computer games or word processors all the way up to complicated operating systems and database management systems. The type of skills you need typically depends on what specific area you’re programming in—but attention to detail, logical thinking, and teamwork are all assets to get this important job done right.
3. Web Developers:
Web developers often have the most visible jobs. They’re the ones who are responsible for building websites and the infrastructures behind them—making a careful balance of creativity and technical prowess a must for those looking to join this area of information technology. Web developers may also be known as “web producers,” “multimedia architects,” and “internet engineers”, making their titles as diverse as their work portfolios.
4. Computer Systems Analyst:
Computer systems analysts are the multitaskers of information technology; they have to understand computer hardware, software, and networks—and how they all come to work together. It’s a large part of their job to make recommendations to their company for which systems are the best to use and to tailor them to best suit their organization’s needs—including costs. This job requires a multitude of different skills, including the ability to analyze information quickly and effectively, excellent communication, and the ability to persuade when necessary.
5. IT Security:
IT security is one of the biggest up-and-coming areas of tech in the market today—they’re in charge of keeping organizations safe from malicious digital attacks. This includes implementing and running security software, scanning for abnormalities, upgrading systems, and keeping their company informed of the risks involved in daily activities. This job requires a lot of problem-solving, crisis management, and effective communication between team members and higher-ups.
6. Network Engineer:
Network engineers have a lot on their plate in terms of duties—they’re in charge of setting up, administering, maintaining and upgrading local and wide area networks for an organization. Depending on the job description, they may also be responsible for security, data, storage, and disaster recovery. Because of their heavy workload, a computer science degree is typically needed to do this job effectively, but planning, analysis, and problem-solving skills are all assets for those looking to join this career path.
A career in Information Technology can involve working in or leading IT departments, product development teams, or research groups. Having success in this job field requires a combination of both technical and business skills.
In summary, IT workers can specialize in fields like software development, application management, hardware (desktop support), storage or server administrator and network architecture.
Information Technology careers
• Chief information officer: This person is responsible for IT and computer systems that support the enterprise’s goals.
• Chief technology officer: This person sets all technology goals and policies within an organization.
• IT director: This person is responsible for the function of all of the businesses’ technology tools and processes. This role is commonly called the IT manager or IT leader.
• Systems administrator: This person configures, manages, supports and troubleshoots a multi-user computing environment. Within an enterprise, this role can be segmented by technology, requiring an administrator or team dedicated to the server, desktop, network, virtualization or other components.
• Application manager: This person’s role centers on the provisioning and management of a high-value business application, such as Exchange.
• Developer: This person or team writes, updates and tests code for programs to meet business objectives internally or facing customers.
• Architect: This person examines and changes IT functions to best support the business.
Issues and challenges in Information Technology
1. As computing systems and capabilities continue expanding worldwide, data overload has become an increasingly critical issue for many IT professionals. Efficiently processing huge amounts of data to produce useful business intelligence requires large amounts of processing power, sophisticated software, and human analytic skills.
2. Teamwork and communication skills have also become essential for most businesses to manage the complexity of IT systems. Many IT professionals are responsible for providing service to business users who are not trained in computer networking or other information technologies but who are instead interested in simply using IT as a tool to get their work done efficiently.
3. System and network security issues are a primary concern for many business executives, as any security incident can potentially damage a company’s reputation and cost large sums of money.
The relationship between computer networking and Information Technology
Because networks play a central role in the operation of many companies, business computer networking topics tend to be closely associated with Information Technology. Networking trends that play a key role in IT include:
• Network capacity and performance: The popularity of online video has greatly increased the demand for network bandwidth both on the Internet and on IT networks. New types of software applications that support richer graphics and deeper interaction with computers also tend to generate larger amounts of data and hence network traffic. Information technology teams must plan appropriately not just for their company’s current needs but also its future growth.
• Mobile and wireless usages: IT network administrators must now support a wide array of smartphones and tablets in addition to traditional PCs and workstations. IT environments tend to require high-performance wireless hotspots with roaming capability. In larger office buildings, deployments are carefully planned and tested to eliminate dead spots and signal interference.
• Cloud services: Whereas IT shops in the past maintained their own server farms for hosting email and business databases, some have migrated to cloud computing environments where third-party hosting providers maintain the data. This change in computing model dramatically changes the patterns of traffic on a company network, but it also requires significant effort in training employees on this new breed of applications.
Information Technology Hardware and Software
Hardware includes not only the computer proper but also the cables, connectors, power supply units, and peripheral devices such as the keyboard, mouse, audio speakers, and printers.
Hardware is sometimes used as a term collectively describing the physical aspects of telephony and telecommunications network infrastructure.
The software is a general term for the various kinds of programs (web browsers, print jobs) used to operate computers and related devices.
The software can be thought of as the variable part of a computer and hardware the invariable part. The software is often divided into application software (programs that users are directly interested in) and system software (which includes operating systems and any program that supports application software).
Example of application software is word processors, database programs, Web browsers, development tools, drawing, paint, image editing programs, and communication programs.
Example of a system software e.g. an operating system (OS):
Windows is Microsoft’s flagship operating system, Mac OS is the operating system for Apple’s Macintosh line of personal computers and workstations. Linux is a Unix-like operating system that was designed to provide personal computer users a free or very low-cost alternative. Linux has a reputation as a very efficient and fast-performing system.
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